Targeting these virulence factors (e.g., inhibiting their production, delivery or function) has gained increasing attention as a potential new antibacterial strategy; in principle Pomalidomide-C2-NH2 this would disarm a pathogen and allow the host immune system a better chance of clearing the infection before the pathogen causes too much tissue damage. described its effect on virulence factors. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of lethal and sub-lethal doses of blue light treatment (BLT) on virulence factors. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of blue light irradiation around the production/activity of several virulence factors. Lethal BLT inhibited the activity of pyocyanin, staphylolysin, pseudolysin and other proteases, but sub-lethal BLT did not affect the production/expression of proteases, phospholipases, and flagella- or type IV pili-associated motility. Moreover, a eukaryotic cytotoxicity test confirmed the decreased toxicity of blue light-treated extracellular fractions. Finally, the increased antimicrobial susceptibility of treated with sequential doses of sub-lethal BLT was exhibited with a checkerboard test. Thus, this work provides evidence-based proof of the susceptibility of drug-resistant to BLT-mediated killing, accompanied by virulence factor reduction, and describes the synergy between antibiotics and sub-lethal BLT. is usually a Gram-negative bacterium that Pomalidomide-C2-NH2 thrives in most natural and man-made environments. It is found in diverse habitats, including soil, water, plants and animals, and infects multiple hosts.1 causes a wide variety of acute (i.e., short duration and typically severe) and chronic (i.e., long duration, often refractory to treatment, and of variable severity depending on the pathogen) human infections, including in patients with severe burn wounds, urinary tract infections, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis (CF).2-5 Adding to the problems caused by its high incidence and the severity of infection, the resistance of to conventional antimicrobial treatments has increased over the past decade.6 Despite their wide recognition, the high incidence, severity and resistance of persist, and Pomalidomide-C2-NH2 various strategies to address these problems have been proposed, such as (i) virulence and pathogenicity factors as therapeutic targets (for a review see ref.?Seven); (ii) secretion systems as therapeutic targets (for a review see ref.?Eight); (iii) cell adhesion and biofilm formation as therapeutic targets (for a review see ref.?Nine); or (iv) quorum sensing as a therapeutic target (for a review see ref.?Ten), as well as many others (for a review see ref.?Eleven)7-11. Therefore, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic options for infections, which may be achieved by specifically targeting its pathogenic mechanisms. The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to cause disease depends on the production of brokers termed virulence factors, such as toxins and adhesion molecules, which actively damage host tissues. Targeting these virulence factors (e.g., inhibiting their production, delivery or function) has gained increasing attention as a potential new antibacterial strategy; in principle this would disarm a pathogen and allow the host immune system a better chance of clearing the infection before the pathogen causes too much tissue damage. Its metabolic versatility, intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and the production of multiple virulence (disease-causing) factors make a formidable pathogen. The virulence machinery of comprises both cell-associated determinants (such as lipopolysaccharides, pili, and flagella) and numerous secreted factors (such as elastases, proteases, exotoxins, pyocyanin (PCN), and extracellular polysaccharides). pathogenicity is usually strongly associated with its ability to move. The following 3 types of movement have been identified: (1) flagella-related swimming and (2) swarming and (3) type IV pili-dependent twitching. Another significant factor contributing to the virulence of is usually PCN (1-hydroxy-5-methylphenazine), a cytotoxic pigment secreted by the bacterium. Moreover, virulence is usually augmented by secreted factors that allow the bacterium to eliminate host tissue, modulate the immune system, create biofilms and initiate the colonization process. LasA (staphylolysin) and LasB (pseudolysin) elastases are proteases secreted by serine protease that has been shown to degrade components of the immune system as well as fibrinogen, plasmin, and plasminogen. In addition, alkaline protease is usually involved in the extracellular processing of proteases; it has a fairly broad substrate range and is thought to Pomalidomide-C2-NH2 act synergistically with other proteases.13 Finally, virulence factors include hemolysins, which lyse red blood cells and release free iron from heme, allowing the bacteria to grow rapidly and leading to greater colonization of the host tissue. produces 2 elements with hemolytic properties: heat-resistant glycolipids and heat-labile phospholipase C.14,15 The severity and increasing incidence of infections involving multidrug-resistant (MDR) have driven research strategies targeting virulence factors that lead to both bacterial eradication and the reduction of bacterial virulence. Major research efforts have been initiated to identify an alternative antimicrobial approach to combat CDH5 bacteria without easily facilitating the development of resistance. In a recent paper published in Nature Reviews Microbiology, Karen Bush and a group of.