Biosensors have become attractive compared with the conventional approaches, providing real-time, possibly on-site, cost-effective, and high-sensitivity analysis. Pingarron group developed a disposable amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the rapid determination of Arah 2 protein, one of the major peanut allergens . combined toxic effect of the two mycotoxins was investigated, and synergistic biotoxicity was observed. Under optimized experimental conditions, a linear concentration range of AFB1 and ZEN in the range of 0.01C0.3 and 0.05C0.5 mg mL?1, with the detection limits of 1 1 and 6 ng mL?1, respectively. The recovery experiments in real oil samples (peanut and corn oils) indicated that the biosensor is applicable for the real sample mycotoxin detection. An interesting strategy for AFB1 detection in grains  was based on DNA nanotetrahedron-structured probe (DTP), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) triggered polyaniline (PANI) deposition. Briefly, the DNA nanotetrahedron was assembled on a gold electrode. Its carboxylic group was conjugated with the AFB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to form DTP. The test sample and a known set concentration of HRP-labeled AFB1 were mixed, and they compete for binding to DTP. The HRP assembled on the gold electrode catalyzed the polymerization of aniline on DTP. AFB1 in grains could be determined by using PANI, which could be detected using the electrochemical method. The dynamic AFB1 concentration range was from 0.05 to 20 ng mL?1. The detection limit was 0.033 ng mL?1. Rice, wheat, corn, sorghum, barley, and buckwheat were selected as model grains to be tested. The results showed that the recovery rate and accuracy of this sensor are comparable with those of ELISA. In fact, considering compared recovery data coming from the proposed method and the ELISA method, it can be deduced that the relative standard deviation ranged from ?9.3% to 9.8%, which indicated there is no clear difference between the two data set. Layer-by-layer self-assembly technology was used to assemble an electrochemical EIS aptasensor to detect AFB1 . A multilayered sandwich structured electrode was obtained, depositing alternately positively charge layers (modified graphene nanosheets) and negatively charge layers (carboxylated polystyrene nanospheres). In this way, many electrochemical active sites and high conductivity were produced. The aptamer of AFB1 was immobilized on the positively charged layer via an amide bond. The optimized electrochemical aptasensor showed a limit of detection of 0.002 ng mL?1 and good stability after 30 days. The electrochemical aptasensor was applied to detect AFB1 in oil and soy sauce, yielding Tasquinimod recovery values in the range of 94.5 and 103.3%. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a nanocomposite composed of poly-(4-aminobenzoic acid) (PABA), graphene oxide (GO), and gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was used for detecting AFB1 . The carboxyl groups are used to bind covalently AFB1 antibodies via self-assembly of the antibody on Tasquinimod AuNPs surface, enhancing the binding sites for the capture probe molecule and electrochemical signal. The obtained immunosensor showed a good linear range from 0.01 to 1 1 ng mL?1 and from 1 to 25 ng mL?1, and its detection limit is determined to be 0.001 ng mL?1. This immunosensor also demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. Moreover, the immunosensor could detect AFB1 in vegetable oil samples. An electrochemical sensor based on a modified gold electrode to detect aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)  was assembled by using a 26-mer DNA aptamer with methylene CRYAA blue (MB) label on an internal thymine (T) site (e.g., 18th T) and a thiol moiety at 5 terminal. This sensor showed a detection limit of 6 pM and enabled detection of AFB1 Tasquinimod in wine, milk, and corn flour samples. This sensor can be regenerated and shows good Tasquinimod stability. mycotoxins are a general term for indicating the secondary metabolites produced by species, and fumonisins is one the most representative family of this kind of mycotoxins. Approximately 15 different derivatives of fumonisins have been discovered, including fumonisin A1 (FA1), FA2, FB1, FB2, FB3, FB4, FC1, FC2, FC3, FC4 and FP1 . Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most toxic compound in this family, exhibiting hepato-, nephro-, and immunotoxicity in many animal species. It is also classified as group 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , and the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain stated a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for FB1 of 1 1.7 mg/kg bw . Guo  reviewed the advances in biosensors, chemosensors, and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements, such as antibodies, aptamers, and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food analysis, limits and time of the detection were also analyzed and discussed. Some interesting examples of novel approaches and strategies to determine FB1 are reported and discussed in the following. We.